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S386参议院闯关失败!下周再来?!美国众议院高票通过新移民法草案H.R.1044!?一贴带你了解对华人申请绿卡影响!
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S386参议院闯关失败!下周再来?!美国众议院高票通过新移民法草案H.R.1044!?一贴带你了解对华人申请绿卡影响!

北美移民君 北美移民君
本文于63天前发布   63天前更新
优选攻略

更新!沸沸扬扬的S386今日 (9月19日)试图以通过无异议表决(Unanimous Consent)的方式通过,以失败告终!

这次站出来反对的参议员是乔治亚州的David Perdue,但David Perdue的发言却相当委婉。“我支持这个法案的部分内容,但在某些地方仍然疑虑... 我愿意和参议员Lee 一起协商,确保我们达成一致....”Davide Perdue说道。

S386

但发起人Mike Lee表示,他还会卷土重来。他说道:“下周我还会再来,这个法案应该得到通过!”目测,这周将要想尽办法争取David Perdue的支持。

什么是S386?

S386也叫“绿卡国别限制法案”,是由美国参议院议员Mike Lee在2019年2月7日提出的一项法案,该法案的众议院版本叫HR 1044(也被称为“2019年高技术移民公平法案”)在同一天提出。

S386
图片来自于@GovTrack ,版权属于原作者

今年7月10日,众议院以365:65高票通过了HR1044法案(S386是其参议院版本)。

接下来送到参议院投票,为了让法案快速通过,Mike Lee希望通过无异议表决(Unanimous Consent)的方式,绕过投票环节,直接通过参议院。Unanimous Consent是一种参议院制度,它假设“所有人都支持”某法案,如没有任何一个参议员当场反对,就能无需进行听证hearing,绕过参议院一个一个投票的环节,直接通过。

今年7月,S386第一次想要通过UC的方式,在参议院闯关时,被肯塔基的参议员Rand Paul反对。

如果Unanious Consent通过,则不需要参议院另外投票。如果通过,下一步会递交总统签字。当然特朗普可以veto(否决)。

在下周来到之前,华人还可以做些什么?

Mike Lee将于下周继续带S386返回参议院,关于通过法案的努力不会就此停止。就像上文所说的,如果参议院通过了,指望川普否决的可能性不大,即使川普否决后,S386 仍然可以通过二次投票继续通过,到时候就很被动了。

所以,现在还在参议院闯关阶段,大家可以继续联系参议员,为自己发声!希望下周即使Rand Paul参议员被说服,也还有其他参议员可以站出来反对!

S386的进一步进展,我们也会密切关注更新!文末附合理表达我们对HR1044/S386 法案的担忧和诉求的方法及参考文本

前景提要

7月10日,美国众议院刚刚高票通过了H.R.1044法案,接下来将等待参议院投票。这条提案今年在年初提出时,就受到了很多的关注:美国联邦参议院与众议院在2月7日已经分别提案,主张取消对每个国家的绿卡总额限制。

H.R.1044提案

目前美国法律规定,每年来自任意一个国家的申请绿卡的配额都是7%。关于目前绿卡排期的进度查询,请大家前往每月第一时间更新的绿卡排期表查询!

什么是H.R.1044提案

职业移民简介

既然H.R.1044提法案会影响职业移民申请绿卡的进度,首先来介绍一下职业移民中最常遇到的几种分类。职业移民是指通过工作雇佣关系或创造工作岗位关系申请的移民类型。留学生小伙伴们最熟悉的H1-B工作同时申请绿卡等等就属于这一类。每年都有大批的小伙伴都过自己的努力申请到绿卡,走上移民的路。

 

通常情况下,职业移民分为以下几类,根据不同的情况分为不同的优先级:

  • 第一优先:杰出人才EB-1
  • 第二优先:专业/技术人才EB-2
  • 第三优先:技术/非技术工人EB-3
  • 第四优先:特殊人员移民EB-4
  • 第五优先:投资移民EB-5

具体关于不同移民种类的介绍请参考:移民美国,获得美国绿卡有哪些方式?亲属移民,职业移民,绿卡排期攻略!

 

H.R.1044法案

法案简介:

H.R.1044法案又称为美国技术移民公平法案(Fairness for High-Skilled Immigrants Act of 2019)。目前,美国的目前美国每年给职业技术移民的绿卡数至少是14万份,但每个国家不能超过总移民配额 7% 的额外限制。由于出现国别限制,部分国家申请人等待时间长达20多年。


提案内容:

 

  • 职业移民取消国家配额,每个移民获得绿卡的先后是根据申请日期,而不是国籍。
  • 取消目前7%的国家限额,但有3年的过渡期,以及必须满足以下条件:
    • 2020财年,中国和印度两个最大绿卡申请国之外的国家,EB-2、EB-3和EB-5类别的绿卡配额可达到15%;
    • 2021财年和2022财年,确保中国和印度两个最大绿卡申请国之外的国家,EB-2、EB-3和EB-5类别的绿卡配额均可达到10%。
    • 2020、2021、2022财年,每一个国家绿卡人数不能超过美国总绿卡人数的25%;非国家地区的绿卡人数比例不能超过总数的2%。
    • 2020、2021、2022财年,任何一个国家的EB-2、EB-3和EB-5类别的绿卡配额都不能超过85%。
  • 家属移民,每个国家的签证配额上限,从原来的7%增加到15%。
  • 废除中国职业移民每年减少1000个配额的规定。

提案状态

 

  • 7月10日,在多名立法者的支持下,众议院已经高票通过了这项法案。
  • 接下来将送到参议院投票,如果参议院通过,等川普签字,就正式成为法律了(目前还未成为正式法律)。
H.R.1044法案

 

实施日期

 

这项提案如果顺利闯关成功,并在2019年9月30日生效的话,将适用于2020财年(该财年从2019年10月1日起)。

H.R.1044提案通过对华人的影响?

看到这里,想必你们最关心的是,如果这个法案最终通过,成为法律,华人到底是受伤还是收益?对于大家关心的问题,我们咨询了美国格知律师事务所雷阁律师进行解答。
Q:如果法案通过,谁受伤,谁受益?
A:针对EB2/3, 受益人主要会是印度申请者。针对EB5,中国申请者会受益。

原因如下:其实一直以来,除了中国和印度出生的移民申请人,其他国别的申请人很少超过7%的配额限制。目前的职业移民绿卡排期,如果说对中国大陆出生的申请人来说是不够友好的话,对印度人来说简直就是煎熬。

H.R.1044法案

中国大陆出生的申请人EB-2,EB-3在8月排期表上的日期是2016或2017年年,而印度出生的申请人是2009以及2006年。如果职业移民绿卡取消国籍限制,一旦通过真的生效,之前大量积压的印度裔绿卡申请人会优先用掉绿卡名额,从而让华人和其他国籍的绿卡申请者面临更长的等待期。

H.R.1044法案

但中国EB-5家庭可能成为H.R.1044的最大赢家,因为目前由于申请人数多,他们现在要等很长长长长的排期,如果取消他们会更快地获得绿卡,并且在许多情况下避免他们的大孩子因超龄而不能获得移民的担忧。

如何提出自己的主张?

提案众院通过,有人欢喜有人愁,不过大多数持H1B申请绿卡的华人而言,还是有些“受伤”。目前H.R.1044提案准备在参议院通关,如果不想提案最终通过,我们现在可以做的就是联系你所在区域的参议员,合理表达我们对HR1044法案的担忧和诉求。

下面是帮大家整理的模版:

H.R.1044法案模板
H.R.1044法案模板
图片来自于@1point3acres.com ,版权属于原作者

模板的可复制黏贴的下载版本:

Dear Representative (Senator) XX,

Legislative Bill HR 1044, “Fairness for High-Skilled Immigrants Act of 2019” is one of the most controversial, yet potentially damaging legislation in Congress. This legislation favors only one country, encourages H1b abuses, and allows it to completely co-opt the entire Employment Based Green Card program.

A “YES VOTE” or co-sponsoring HR1044, “Fairness for High-Skilled Immigrants Act of 2019”, would effectively wipe out ethnic diversity in the skilled legal immigration system and be detrimental to the vital interests of the USA.

While sympathizing the long backlog that immigrants origin in India are currently suffering, I believe HR1044 will only make the situation worse because:

  1. It does not increase the quota of legal immigration, but only redistribute it among Indian immigrants and immigrants from the rest of the world.Currently, there are 466K Indian nationals in the backlog (per CRS Dec 2018 report in EB/2), so it will take about 12 years for these applicants to receive their GC. As a result, every new applicant from the rest of the world will be thrown into an overnight 12-year wait.
  2. HR1044/S386 encourages H1b abuse, which is disastrous for nearly everyone except for multinational tech giants and outsourcing companies, who are utilizing the H1b as well as the EB2/3 programs to exploit cheap labor from other countries. Due to the institutional support from outsourcing companies, it has been much easier for the outsourced personnel to enter the EB2/3 queue compared to people who come to study and file green card application after they have landed a job in the US. As this bill does not have any clauses to restrain H1b abuse effectively, passing it will encourage more H1b abuse, which benefits the tech giants but worsens the situation of local workers. It also kills the dream of most foreign nationals (including Indians) seeking to immigrate to the US via fair market competition rather than through outsourcing companies. With this bill passed, it will become even harder and almost impossible to survive a chance if they have to compete individually against the outsourcing companies.
  3. HR1044/S386 will effectively wipe out ethnic and skill/industry diversity from other countries for more than 12 years as only Indian nationals will receive EB GCs in a first-come, first-serve waiting line. Indian nationals constitute about 17% of the world’s population & about 17% of the international students; but at the same time, they receive about 75% of H1B visas AND 55-60% of PERM Labor Filings. Effectively, Indian nationals DOMINATE the H1B & PERM Labor Certification process, essentially crowding out foreign nationals from 190+ other countries! The 7% country caps is the only measure curtailing the absolute monopolization of the EB Green Cards by India.

    If HR1044/S386 is passed, the Employment-Based immigration program will become an Indian-First, Indian-Only program, which eliminates any possibility of an ethnically & culturally diverse immigration community.
  4. HR1044/S386 has a profound negative impact on universities in the US. Partly contributed by H1b abuse, many Indians in the US work in the IT sector and have only a Bachelor’s degree from universities in India. HR1044/ S386 will effectively prioritize applicants with foreign undergraduate degrees over US PhDs & Master’s degrees. This will cause more talents, including those from India, to avoid studying in the US since it does not pay off. Furthermore, because the majority of MDs and RNs are NOT from India, this bill will lead to sudden and critical shortages in underserved areas.

On the other hand, I think there are much better ways to solve the backlog program without the catastrophic side effects as listed above.

For example, the current bill puts an 85% cap on each country, which may cause one country to monopoly the system. However, if we set this ratio to a more modest number, e.g. 15%, it is still higher than the current quota, thus processing the backlog faster, but will not come at the cost of all other nationals and will not encourage H1b abuse and outsourcing in the way that the current bill does.

Furthermore, I firmly believe that the bill will serve its purpose ONLY AFTER ending the H1b abuse. Any laws and/or regulations on immigration/visa quota is likely to be abused by outsourcing companies if we pass them without ending the abuse. If we increase the quota, they are likely to exploit more cheap labor. If we redistribute the quota, they are privileged in helping more cheap labor in the tech industry to get into the queue that originally is designed for all employers and immigrants. We have to identify and stop the abuse before anything else, while HR1044/S386 just ignores this critical issue.

Finally, I agree that we should address the backlog problem that Indian immigrants face, yet a special deal to help them who are already in the queue is better than an institutionalized pathway benefiting only tech giants and outsourcing companies at the cost of everyone else in the long run. An amnesty bill could help clear the backlog, but we should not encourage more outsourcing and H1b abuse just to give green card to the people who are already in the queue.

Above are my arguments against the HR1044/S386 bill. I urge you to vote "NO" to the bill until it addresses all the above issues. Our immigration system should not be abused and we should act to protect the diversity of our immigration community.

Thank you and looking forward to your reply!

Yours sincerely,
XXX

(以上文字来自于@1point3acres.com ,版权属于原作者)

如何查找议员的联系方式:
//www.senate.gov/general/contact_information/senators_cfm.cfm
https://www.house.gov/representatives/find-your-representative

白宫网站上关于要求修改HR 1044/S 386的请愿:
https://petitions.whitehouse.gov/petition/do-not-pass-bills-s386-or-hr1044-do-not-pass-bills-s386-or-hr1044-us-worker-and-racial-diversity

H.R.1044法案模板

Q&A

Q:这个提案可能获得通过吗?

A:雷阁律师认为,现在来看,这项提案能否通过,还要打一个问号。目前只是众议院通过,接下来还需要等参议院投票,参议院通过后,要等川普签字才能成为法律。目前只能说,提案通过的可能性,存在不稳定的变数。而且,提案到两院通关,涉及不同利益集团的博弈,具体的条文会增加和删减,因此即使最后投票通过,提案的具体内容可能已经大变样。而其实最近十年关于取消国别限制的提案也曾多次在国会推出,但一直没有获得通过。

Q:华人联系参议员提出反对意见,能左右议员的投票吗?

A:需要肯定的是,华人选择为自己权益发声的做法是非常好的。不过对于实质效果,这个不太好说。因为提案导致华人利益受损这件事目前还没有出现在美国主流媒体上,其次,发声的人数,相对于整个收益群体而言,还是少数,同时,由于提案的同意与反对,涉及不同利益集团的博弈,华人这个因素会否被考虑进去,也是需要存疑的。但我觉得,不能因为效果不理想,就不去做。因为不发声,连1%改变的希望都没有。所以,对于大家的建议是:不要过度恐慌,可以发声合理表达诉求,但不要过度期望!

Q:如果法案通过,谁受伤,谁受益?

A:针对EB2/3, 受益人主要会是印度申请者。针对EB5,中国申请者会受益。

小总结

总的来说,目前新移民法草案H.R.1044还没有通过,大家不要过度恐慌。关于绿卡排期的进度查询,请大家前往每月第一时间更新的绿卡排期表查询!

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